Boiling point of water
Plastic is a material made up of organic or synthetic compounds that have the property of being malleable and can therefore be molded into solid objects of various shapes. This property gives plastics a wide variety of applications. Its name derives from plasticity, a property of materials, which refers to the ability to deform without breaking.
In 1839 Goodyear in the United States and Hancock in England developed in parallel the vulcanization of rubber, i.e. the hardening of rubber and its increased resistance to cold. This was the beginning of the commercial success of thermosetting polymers. The plastics industry began with the development of plastics.
The plastics industry begins with the development of the first thermoset plastics by Baekeland in 1909. Baekeland produced the first synthetic polymer and also developed the plastic molding process, which enabled him to produce various articles of commerce. These early plastics were named Bakelite in honor of their discoverer. Bakelite is formed by a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Baekeland’s first synthetic polymer is called Bakelite.
Plastic boiling point in Celsius
Stress-strain curves at different temperatures for a nylon 66 with 43% glass fiber reinforced. In general, strength and stiffness decrease with increasing temperature while elongation at break, a good relative indicator of ductility, increases. Although all of these temperatures are relatively close to room temperature, the performance of the material decreases to a significant degree compared to the values provided in the data sheet.
Modulus vs. temperature of nylon 6 (semi-crystalline) and PC (amorphous). At room temperature, the elastic modulus of both materials agrees with the tensile modulus in the data sheet within 2-3%. But while most data sheets provide little or no information on the effect of temperature on the properties, the plots provide a complete map of the temperature-dependent behavior for the two materials.
Amorphous PC exhibits only one transition temperature, known as the glass transition temperature (Tg). This represents the temperature at which the individual polymer chains become sufficiently mobile at the molecular level to move independently, despite remaining cross-linked. Structurally, this event can be compared to a softening temperature, and for engineering purposes, the material loses all charge properties as it passes through this transition. Between room temperature and the onset of the glass transition, the modulus of PC is relatively constant, decreasing by approximately 20% between room temperature and 135°C, a value that is in agreement with the deflection temperature under load (DTUL) provided in most data sheets. However, most data sheets provide little guidance on the effects of temperature on load ratings between room temperature and DTUL.
Boiling point of paper
Boiling involves a liquid-gas transition in which, at the submicroscopic level, the particles acquire greater freedom of movement as a function of an increase in kinetic energy.
Although this process is very different from evaporation, which is gradual and for which only some molecules of the liquid have sufficient energy to pass to the gaseous state, it is part of the same phenomenon called vaporization.
The boiling temperature depends on the substance and the pressure to which the liquid is subjected. For example, in the case of water, water in an open pot at sea level reaches 100 °C when it begins to boil, while water in a pressure stove used in the kitchen reaches a temperature of 105 or 110 °C before boiling, due to the higher pressure reached by the gases inside. Thanks to this higher temperature of the water inside the pressure cooker, the food cooks more quickly. On the contrary, when boiling in an open pot, the boiling temperature of the water decreases. The same happens when the altitude of the place where the cooking takes place increases.
Boiling point of glass
HDPE is obtained by a Ziegler-Natta polymerization process, which is a catalytic polymerization process (Ziegler-Natta catalyst). There are three major commercial processes used in the polymerization of HDPE: solution, suspension and gas-phase processes. The catalysts used in the manufacture of HDPE are generally either of the transition metal oxide or Ziegler-Natta type. In this process, a solvent is used which dissolves the monomer, the polymer and the polymerization initiator. By diluting the monomer with the solvent, the polymerization rate is reduced and the heat released by the polymerization reaction is absorbed by the solvent. Benzene or chlorobenzene can generally be used as solvents. In bulk polymerization only the monomer is polymerized, usually in a gas or liquid phase, although some solid state polymerizations are also carried out. This is a direct polymerization of monomers into a polymer, in a reaction in which the polymer remains soluble in its own monomer. Additionally, with Phillips catalysts (chromium trioxide), HDPE with very high density and straight chains is produced.