File:Nucleus ER golgi ex.jpgGolgi apparatus, (in pink).3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). 4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (REL). 7 Transporter vesicle. 8 Golgi Apparatus (GA). 9 Cis-face of the GA. 10 Cara-Trans of GA. 11 GA cisternae. 12 Secretory vesicle.
is an organelle present in all eukaryotic cells that is part of the endomembrane system. The Golgi consists mainly of 4-6 flattened saccules or cisternae, which are stacked on top of each other, and whose function is to complete the processing and eventual secretion of some macromolecules. It functions as a packing plant, modifying vesicles of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, new membrane material is formed in various cisternae of the Golgi apparatus.
Among the functions of the Golgi apparatus are protein glycosylation, selection, targeting and glycosylation of lipids, and synthesis of extracellular matrix polysaccharides. Storage and distribution of lysosomes, as well as peroxisomes, which are vesicles for the secretion of substances. The Golgi apparatus is also responsible for the storage and distribution of lysosomes, as well as peroxisomes.
Peroxisomes are very common cytoplasmic organelles in the form of vesicles containing oxidases and catalases. These enzymes perform cellular detoxification functions. Like all organelles, peroxisomes are found only in eukaryotic cells. They were discovered in 1965 by Christian de Duve and co-workers. They were initially called microbodies and are present in all eukaryotic cells.
Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic product, which is rapidly degraded within the peroxisome itself by the oxidative enzyme catalase into water and oxygen using as intermediates certain organic substances (in the equation the variable R’).
Scientists now postulate that peroxisomes have prevailed since their emergence as an adaptation against the continuous toxic effects to which a cell that maintains aerobic metatabolism and accidentally produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) is exposed. These chemical species react rapidly with elements fundamental to cellular stability such as DNA, hence they are attributed a critical role in aging and loss of cell cycle control that can lead to tumors and cancer. In particular, ROS can unbalance the reducing state of the cytoplasm, leading to a blockage of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and transient shutdown of energy production.
Vacuoles have long been considered to form from the endoplasmic reticulum. When it became evident that they were very similar to the lysosomes of animal cells, it was concluded that the vacuoles of at least some plant cells had an origin similar to that of animal lysosomes.
The formation of lysosomes is associated with a highly specialized region of the cytoplasm called the GERL, consisting of the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum and the lysosomes. This membrane association has also been found in some plant cells, so the origin of vacuoles could be the same as that of animal lysosomes.
Due to the active transport and retention of certain ions by the tonoplast, ions can accumulate in the vacuolar fluid in concentrations much higher than those in the outer cytoplasm. Sometimes the concentration of a certain material is large enough to form crystals, for example, of calcium oxalate, which can take different forms: druse, star-shaped, and raphidia, needle-shaped. Some vacuoles are acidic, such as those of citrus fruits.
As more and more techniques are developed in Cell Biology, we know more about the great mysteries and secrets that cells hold. Knowing plant and animal cells is very important to understand the functioning of living beings, to understand the diseases they suffer, to develop therapeutic techniques against these diseases or to obtain products of commercial interest, it is also important to understand the similarities and differences between animal and plant cells. In this article of EcologíaVerde we explain them to you in an easy way and with diagrams and tables that help to understand it better and to study.
Now that we have mentioned the similarities, we detail that the differences that we can find between plant and animal cells are:In addition, as a summary, in this table or comparative table of differences between an animal cell and a plant cell you can see it in a simple way. We also recommend that, so you can expand this information in a practical way, read this other article of EcologíaVerde on the similarities and differences between plants and animals. And finally, below the table you can see a video from our YouTube channel with a summary on this topic of animal cells and plant cells.