The country has more plant species per unit area than any other country in South America. Ecuador is home to 18% of the world’s total number of recognized birds, or 1,655 birds. The 382 species of mammals that exist in this country account for 7% of the 5,490 species recorded in the world. It is, in short, a rich tropical region, with wetlands, due to its privileged geographical location in the neotropics, which makes it part of this privileged list of biodiversity.
It is home to between 10 and 12% of the planet’s species. What is the reason for this fantastic biodiversity data? To its privileged geographical position, the variety of climates and its complex topography, which have led to a great variety of conditions. In addition, it is one of the countries in the world with the longest coastline and has an exclusive sea, the Gulf of California, which is the second largest reef in the world.
The curious thing about Australia is that despite being mostly desert or, at least, semi-arid, it has a great diversity of habitats in which tropical rainforests can also be found. Its climates are very variable, but thanks to the isolation in time that it experiences from other continents, 85% of the flowering plants, 84% of the mammals, more than 45% of the birds, and 90% of the fish in the temperate coastal areas (where the greatest biodiversity is concentrated) are endemic.
An ecosystem is a biological system consisting of a community of living organisms (biocenosis) and the physical environment in which they interact (biotope). It is a unit composed of interdependent organisms that share the same habitat. Ecosystems often form a series of chains that show the interdependence of organisms within the system.  It can also be defined as follows: “An ecosystem consists of the biological community of a place and the physical and chemical factors that constitute the abiotic environment.” Abiotic and biotic factors are considered to be linked by trophic chains, or the flow of energy and nutrients in ecosystems. This concept, which was introduced in 1949, is based on the concept of ecosystems.
This concept, which was introduced in 1935 by the English ecologist A. G. Tansley, takes into account the complex interactions between the organisms (e.g. plants, animals, bacteria, protists and fungi) that make up the community (biocenosis) and the flows of energy and materials that pass through it. The concept is also referred to as “food chains”.
There are two types of ecosystems
Australia The 2019 fires highlighted the danger of losing such biodiverse spaces as Australia. Home to koalas, kangaroos and the world’s largest coral reef, this country of more than 7 million km2, is home to between 660,000 and 700,000 species of fauna and flora and boasts endemic mammals known worldwide, but also native flora such as the Hakea, a flower with pointed leaves, and the Banksia Nutans, a shrub with pink and brown flowers.
China With an area of more than 9.5 billion km2, China has no shortage of natural spaces to boast about, even if they contrast with the crowded cities of Beijing or Shanghai. One of its best-known green destinations is Zhangjiajie, which became world famous as the setting for the movie Avatar, and as home to numerous bird species. In fact, China is one of the countries with the greatest diversity of bird species, exceeding 1,200. Endemic animals such as pandas, Tibetan antelopes or South Chinese tigers can be found in its lands.
Ecosystems of the world pdf
The researchers, led by Andrew Plumptre of the Key Biodiversity Areas Secretariat and Cambridge-based BirdLife International, analyzed three areas to assess ecological integrity.
“We found that only 2.8% of the planet’s land surface is represented in areas of 10,000 square km or more with a low human footprint, no loss of known species and no known species reduced below functional densities,” they explained.
Only 11% of the areas identified by the researchers as functionally intact are included within existing protected areas. However, the study adds that “many of the areas identified as ecologically intact coincide with territories managed by indigenous communities, who have played a vital role in maintaining the ecological integrity of these areas.”
| Florida Keys – The Florida Keys are among the most vulnerable places in the United States to the effects of the climate crisis. Warm ocean temperatures are bleaching the surrounding reefs. The threat of sea level rise continues to grow. And, as always, the possibility looms that hurricanes with climate change will increase their destructive potential. (Shutterstock)