Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their place of birth to their site of reproduction (‘natal dispersal’), and the movement from one site of reproduction to another (‘reproductive dispersal’). Dispersal is also used to describe the movement of propagules such as seeds and spores. Technically, dispersal is defined as any movement that has the potential to lead to gene flow. The act of dispersal involves three phases: departure, transfer, settlement, and there are different fitness costs and benefits associated with each of these phases. By simply moving from one habitat patch to another, the dispersal of an individual has consequences not only for individual fitness, but also for population dynamics, population genetics, and species distribution.  Understanding dispersal and the consequences for both species-level evolutionary strategies and ecosystem-level processes requires understanding the type of dispersal, the dispersal range of a given species, and the dispersal mechanisms involved.
Types of spatial distribution
Refers to the dispersion pattern of individuals of a population in a given area and the way in which populations are distributed due to the heterogeneity of their habitat. According to the conditions in a particular area, a population may find a specific zone of its habitat more suitable in a certain phase of its life cycle and also present cyclical variations over time.
– Habitat selection mechanisms: these are related to the behavioral patterns that lead an organism and a population to “choose” whether or not to live in a given environment. In this sense, it is considered that natural selection will favor individuals whose sensory systems allow them to identify suitable habitats in which they can establish themselves and develop successfully, for example, those that allow them to identify the odor of a certain food or the substrate on which they should or should not oviposit; systems that identify gradients of humidity, temperature or incidence of sunlight; others that alert them to the presence of predators and competitors, or systems that allow them to identify the presence of a certain type of substrate for fixation. Finally, habitat selection is closely related to the evolution and heritability of structures capable of providing adequate information and, of course, of having the capacity to change over time in the face of the possibility of environmental alterations or the opening of new environments.
Species distribution modes are the different ways in which a biological taxon may be spatially arranged in its biogeographic range. Species distribution should not be confused with dispersal, which is the movement of individuals from their area of origin or centers of high density to other locations. The area where a species is found can be represented by a species distribution map. Chorology is the discipline in charge of establishing the distribution of species, while biogeography is that which studies the climatic, geological, geographical or historical factors that determine such distribution, the communities, their dynamics, and evolution. The distribution of species in groups, groups of species, or groups of species in groups, or groups of species in groups, or groups of species in groups, or groups of species in groups, or groups of species in groups, or groups of species.
The distribution of species in groups, uniform or random, depends on different abiotic and biotic factors. Any non-living chemical or physical factor in the environment is considered an abiotic factor. There are three main types of abiotic factors: climatic factors consist of sunlight, atmosphere, humidity, temperature, and salinity; edaphic factors are abiotic factors with respect to the soil, such as soil roughness, local geology, soil pH, and aeration; and social factors include land use and water availability. An example of the effects of abiotic factors on species distribution can be seen in drier areas, where most individuals of a species will gather around water sources in a clustered distribution.
Random distribution examples
which, being toxic to other plants, prevent the growth of other plant species around them. Similarly, in animals, uniform distribution is the result of territorial behaviors of some species, which causes individuals to move away from each other and locate themselves equidistantly in space.
Spreading among individuals is irregular and the presence of one individual does not directly affect the location of others. It occurs when the individuals of a population are distributed in an unpredictable or random manner, unrelated to the presence of others.
In addition to the historical and geographic causes that determine the distribution of an organism, there are many physical and abiotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms. Among these we will mention a few.
The distribution and diversity of plants are highly related to moisture. Both plants and animals of dry habitats have specific adaptations to reduce the effects of lack of water. These adaptations allow them to colonize dry environments, such as the