The elements of the ia group are known as the alkali metals.
Alkali metals or simply alkaline metals (from the Arabic, alqali) are these six chemical elements: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs) and francium (Fr). These elements, together with hydrogen (which is a gas), constitute group 1 found in the S-block of the periodic table.
All alkali metals have their outermost electron in an s-orbital, and this shared electronic configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. In fact, the alkali metals provide the best example of similar group patterns in their periodic table properties, with elements exhibiting homologous characteristic behavior. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family because lithium is their first element.
There were at least four erroneous and incomplete discoveries before Marguerite Perey of the Curie Institute in Paris, France discovered francium in 1939 by purifying a sample of actinium-227, which had been reported to have a decay energy of 220 keV. However, Perey noticed decay particles with an energy level below 80 keV. Perey thought that this decay activity might have been caused by a previously unidentified decay product, one that separated during purification, but arose again from pure actinium-227. Several tests eliminated the possibility that the unknown element is thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. The new product exhibited chemical properties of an alkali metal (such as coprecipitating with cesium salts), leading Perey to believe it was element 87, caused by alpha disintegration of actinium-227. Next, Perey attempted to determine the ratio of beta decay to alpha decay in actinium-227. His first test put the alpha-branching at 0.6%, a figure that he later revised to 1%. He found that the alpha-branching of actinium-227 was caused by alpha decay.
Table of reactivity of metals
The name of the alkali metals, on the other hand, comes from the Arabic alqali, “ash,” because early sodium and potassium compounds were wrapped in wood ashes to protect them from moisture.
Alkali metals are generally shiny, soft and malleable, which is why they can be easily cut. They are also quite light and have a high reactivity. They are also good conductors of electricity and heat.
The alkali metals are located in group IA or group 1 of the Periodic Table of the Elements. Hydrogen is also located in that group, but it is not an alkali metal. The alkali metals are the six initial elements of the table and the zone where they are located is known as the “s” zone.
The high reactivity of the alkali metals means that they form chemical bonds with many types of substances and elements and do so easily. The main reason for this ability is their ionization energy (energy required to separate an electron from an atom in its neutral state), which decreases as you move down the Periodic Table.
The elements of the ia group are characterized by having at their last level
When we speak of alkali metals, we are referring to those chemical elements of group 1 of the periodic table. It is composed of the elements Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr. In general terms, the vertical columns of the periodic table are usually referred to as groups. This allows to generate classifications where the elements become part of the same group with other metals and elements with similar characteristics or properties. In general, the elements that are part of a group usually have the same atomic valence.
In terms of their characteristics, we can say that they are chemically active materials. They are soft metals, usually found in the form of salts. In addition, it is important to mention that they are materials that do not exist in nature in a free form, so they require certain specific processes to obtain them.
Finally, to know the alkali metals, it is important to talk about their uses and applications. This depends on each metal in particular. On the one hand, lithium is currently used especially for the synthesis of high-strength aluminum. It is also used to produce glass, as a component of batteries, batteries and lubricants, and for glazing ceramics.
Most reactive metals of the periodic table
Metals are elements that, thanks to their electronic configuration, are good conductors of electricity and heat, since their valence band and conduction band overlap.Most of the elements in the periodic table can be defined as metals and occupy the entire center and left of the table, plus the lanthanides and actinides, which are also metallic elements. Location of metals and the periodic tableWithin the metals, various groups can be found, such as the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals or the transition metals, groups that differ among other properties by their capacity for chemical reactivity.When studying the configuration of the periodic table, various patterns can be observed, and among them a well-defined pattern is that chemical reactivity increases from top to bottom and from right to left.Increasing reactivity in the periodic tableThus, in group IA of the periodic table are the most reactive metals. They are so reactive that they react violently even with water, as is the case of lithium, sodium or potassium.Advertisement