Chinese manuscripts suggest that “white copper” was used in the East around 1700 to 1400 BC; however, the ease of confusing nickel ores with silver ores suggests that the use of nickel was actually later, around the 4th century BC.
Exposure to nickel metal and its soluble compounds should not exceed 0.05 mg/cm3 measured at nickel equivalent levels for an occupational exposure of 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week. Nickel sulfide vapors and dust are suspected to be carcinogenic.
Sensitized persons may manifest allergies to nickel. The permissible amount of nickel in products that can come into contact with the skin is regulated in the European Union; however, the journal Nature published an article in 2002 in which researchers claimed to have found higher levels than permitted in 1 and 2 euro coins, believed to be due to a galvanic reaction.
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Nickel is metal or non-metal
The use of nickel dates back to about IV B.C., generally together with copper, since it appears frequently in ores of this metal. Bronzes originating from present-day Syria have nickel contents in excess of 2%. Chinese manuscripts suggest that “white copper” was used in the East around 1700 to 1400 B.C.; however, the ease of confusing nickel ores with silver ores suggests that the use of nickel was actually later, around IV B.C. Nickel-bearing ores, such as nickeline, have been used to color glass.
56Ni is produced in large quantities in type II supernovae, the shape of the light curve corresponding to the decay of 56Ni into 56Co and the latter into 56Fe. 59Ni is a long-lived isotope obtained by cosmogenesis. This isotope has found various applications in radiometric dating of meteorites and in determining the abundance of extraterrestrial dust in ices and sediments.
Exposure to nickel metal and its soluble compounds should not exceed 0.05 mg/cm3 measured at nickel equivalent levels for an occupational exposure of 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week. Nickel sulfide vapors and dust are suspected carcinogens.
Characteristics of nickel
Nickel is an absolutely essential product for the development of industry and one of the most demanded metals. It reacts with difficulty in aggressive media and is considered resistant to corrosion; it does not suffer the so-called “galling” effect which copper, for example, does.
Today it is very common to find it in the coins of any country, where, due to its high cost, it is alloyed with copper. These coins supplanted silver coins around the middle of the 20th century, sometimes causing confusion. Some examples are the five cents of the United States or the inner disc of a one euro coin.
Ni has been used to date the terrestrial age of meteorites and to determine the abundance of extraterrestrial dust in ice and sediments. The half-life of nickel-78 was recently measured at 110 milliseconds, and it is believed to be an important isotope in supernova nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than iron. Nuclide 48Ni, discovered in 1999, is the most proton-rich heavy element isotope known. With 28 protons and 20
Nickel periodic table
Its name comes from the Greek ‘molybdos’ meaning ‘lead-like’, and refers to its dark gray appearance. Although it is assumed that some of its properties were known in ancient times, this element was identified only at the end of the 18th century.
It was a century before the advantages of its use in steel alloys became known. During World War I, when the demand for tungsten almost exhausted stocks, this metal was replaced with molybdenum and this triggered its commercial use.
Molybdenum is used primarily for the manufacture of stronger steels, but it is also used as a component of superalloys, nickel alloys, and in industries such as lubricants, chemicals and electronics.