What are the 4 main fields of ecology?

Microbial ecology

This means attending to the biological, chemical and statistical conditions of life, as well as to the physical, chemical, geographical, climatic and even geological conditions of the environment in which life takes place.

Although environmental preservation and defense of the environment are part of the interests and applications of ecology, this should not be confused with environmental militancy or with the environmental struggle.

Ecology is one of the branches of biology with the most practical applications. These include conservation and environmentalism, natural resource and wetland management, urban planning, community health, economics, human social interaction, and other basic applied sciences.

The term ecology arose in 1869 in the work of the Prussian philosopher Ernst Haeckel, and is composed of the Greek words oikos (“house, home”) and logos (“word”, “study”). In this sense, a first definition of ecology would be “the study of homes”.

Importance of ecology

Nature has the ability to connect us with everything around us. Knowing which are the branches of ecology is essential for a balance between living beings and the planet. This science of biology allows us to study the relationships that exist between natural resources and the environment where they develop.

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Before knowing which are the branches of ecology, it is necessary to understand its concept. It is known as the study of the interaction between the environment and living beings. Its purpose is to analyze the behavior of organisms and the environment. Evaluating the possible factors that may affect the abundance or distribution of organisms.

Known as a field that includes earth sciences and biology. It is related to genetics, ethology and evolutionary biology. Ecological studies attempt to understand how biodiversity can affect the planet.

Also known as biosphere geography. This branch analyzes the distribution of living things on earth. Considering the factors involved. It also studies the effects on living beings and natural spaces. It is considered important in biology and physical geography.

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The 3 branches of ecology

Many questions can be asked from the reading of chapter four. However, there is one statement that may well summarize not only the chapter, but all that has been worked on so far. It is summed up in what the Pope says in paragraph 139: “There are not two separate crises, one environmental and the other social, but a single complex socio-environmental crisis. The lines for the solution require an integral approach to combat poverty, to restore dignity to the excluded and simultaneously to care for nature”.


Ecology evolved from the natural history of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Theophrastus, laying the foundations of ecology in their studies of natural history. The later foundations for modern ecology were laid in the early work of plant and animal physiologists. Evolutionary concepts of adaptation and natural selection became cornerstones of modern ecological theory, transforming it into a more rigorous science in the 19th century. It is closely related to evolutionary biology, genetics and ethology. Understanding how biodiversity affects ecological function is an important area of focus in ecological studies.

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Haeckel originally understood ecology as the science that studies the relationships of living things to their environment, but later extended this definition to the study of the characteristics of the environment, which also includes the transport of matter and energy, and their transformation by biological communities.