Who wrote the first ecology book?


Care is defined in several senses. The first is care as solicitude, solicitude, attention, diligence, demonstrating an importance of the other. A second sense, derived from the previous one, denotes concern, uneasiness, even alarm for the other. It corresponds to a more affective dimension of care and is linked to the loved one and with those with whom feelings of love are shared. “Care makes the other a precious reality,” Boff affirms (19). A third sense of care is presented to us, as “the set of support and protection devices without which the human being does not live” (19). The author continues to enrich the concept with a fourth sense: care as precaution and prevention (21).

The theologian devotes dense pages to the philosophical and anthropological foundation of care, where he emphasizes, along the same lines as above, the understanding of the human being as “bearer of essential care” (34) and thus care is, then, “the relational meaning of life” (34). It may seem that care is elevated to the profound order of love, and this is precisely what Boff tries to demonstrate: that care is vital and belongs to the definition of the human, going so far as to affirm that “to speak of the human being without speaking of care is not to speak of the human being” (35).

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Eugene p. odum biography

Perhaps the passage of time has made Alexander von Humboldt a lesser known figure than other great names in science, but he was a great naturalist, pioneer and adventurer who laid the foundations of what would later become modern ecology. Influenced by the vision of figures such as Kant and Goethe, he saw nature holistically, as a whole, and was a strong advocate of human rights, human equality and free speech.

Humboldt thought that the overall impression (Totaleindruck) gained from the system was essential. Therefore, he needed to experiment in the laboratory (e.g., on galvanism, and he did so, sometimes painfully, on his own body) and to go to places where nature expressed itself strongly (the tropics above all). He tried to obtain the overall impression by helping his senses with the use of measuring instruments and drawing, attentive to the organism but also to everything around him. He saw nature as a whole, an immense network of interrelationships. He was the first to warn of the effect of forests on the climate and of “the already incalculable and potentially catastrophic consequences if the world continued to be so brutally disturbed”. This is very advanced thinking for the time, since the dominant anthropocentrism believed that man improved nature and beautified it with cultivation and constructions. He had observed the retreat of Lake Valencia in Venezuela due to human causes and many other cases in Europe that disproved this optimism about the role of man.

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History of ecology timeline

On the close relationship between McLuhan’s thesis and the development of the Internet -the intelligent medium-, Piscitelli (2005) states that “McLuhan’s favorite medium would have been the Internet”. “For McLuhan’s theses to be seriously tested, they needed the emergence of a new medium. The best test to adore (or banish) McLuhan would undoubtedly be the digital frontier (…). Reviewing McLuhan’s entire work, based on the existence and experiences of the Internet, is healthier, since many of his metaphors were too quickly disqualified. The most famous of all, the one that sustains that the world would have to become a global village, acquires today a less autistic and geopolitically more correct tone, when we review it from the perspective of the 750 million Internet users in the world today, expressing themselves and connecting, at least potentially among themselves” (Piscitelli. 2005: 126).

In this paper I will analyze cultural convergence from the perspective of Media Ecology, considering, particularly, some of the theses formulated by Neil Postman, Marshall McLuhan and Henry Jenkins, regarding the phenomenology of technological changes and cultural convergence.

Father of ecology

“There are people suffering. There are people dying. There are whole ecosystems collapsing. We are at the beginning of a mass extinction, and all you can talk about is money and fairy tales of eternal economic growth. How dare you!”

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Today, it is important to highlight the role of ecologists in the study of biodiversity loss, one of the great environmental concerns of the present. Ecology investigates the extent to which the loss of species endangers ecosystems and makes them less resilient to major environmental changes, which in turn can have disastrous consequences for the economy of affected regions.

U.S. President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon planting a tree on the White House lawn to celebrate the first Earth Day in 1970. Image: Wikimedia Commons